What are the shortcomings of solar energy utilization?
1) Dispersibility: Although the total amount of solar radiation reaching the surface of the earth is large, the energy flow density is very low. On average, near the Tropic of Cancer, in the summer when the weather is relatively sunny, the irradiance of solar radiation is the largest at noon, and the average solar energy received in the area of 1 square meter perpendicular to the direction of sunlight has an average of about 1000W; The average day and night is only about 200W. In winter, it is only about half, and on cloudy days it is only about 1/5. This energy density is very low. Therefore, when using solar energy, in order to obtain a certain conversion power, a set of collection and conversion equipment having a relatively large area is often required, and the cost is high.
2) Instability: Due to the limitation of natural conditions such as day and night, season, geographical latitude and altitude, and random factors such as sunny, cloudy, cloud and rain, the solar irradiance reaching a certain ground is interrupted. It is extremely unstable, which makes it difficult to use solar energy for large-scale applications. In order to make solar energy a continuous and stable energy source and eventually become an alternative energy source that can compete with conventional energy sources, it is necessary to solve the energy storage problem by storing solar radiation during sunny days as much as possible for night or rain. It is used in days, but current energy storage is also one of the weakest links in solar energy utilization.
3) Low efficiency and high cost: At present, the development level of solar energy utilization is theoretically feasible and technically mature. However, some solar energy utilization devices have low efficiency and high cost. In general, economics cannot compete with conventional energy sources. For a considerable period of time in the future, the further development of solar energy utilization is mainly constrained by economics.
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